The Bible has three land prophecies that can identify Book of Mormon lands. They are:
On September 21, 1823, the angel Moroni appeared to Joseph Smith and quoted the eleventh chapter of Isaiah to him and emphasized that it was soon to be fulfilled (Joseph Smith-History:40):
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. (Isaiah 11:11)
It is a tribute to the importance of the book of Isaiah that Moroni quoted the whole of the prophecy in Isaiah 11 to the Prophet Joseph Smith. He then informed him that it was soon to be fulfilled. (Isa. 11 , FARMS Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 4, no. 1 (Spring 1995), 276)
Nephi believed they were on an island of the sea:
20 And now, my beloved brethren, seeing that our merciful God has given us so great knowledge concerning these things, let us remember him, and lay aside our sins, and not hang down our heads, for we are not cast off; nevertheless, we have been driven out of the land of our inheritance; but we have been led to a better land, for the Lord has made the sea our path, and we are upon an isle of the sea.
21 But great are the promises of the Lord unto them who are upon the isles of the sea; wherefore as it says isles, there must needs be more than this, and they are inhabited also by our brethren. (2 Nephi 10:21)
Nephi quotes the passage in Isaiah:
And it shall come to pass in that day that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. (2 Nephi 21:11)
Thus, in order to be considered an “island,” it must be surrounded by water. The word “isle” can mean a number of things, but in conjunction to the word “sea” and the plural use of the word, its clear they thought they were on an island, big or small.
FORTS ALL AROUND, WARFARE
And I will camp against thee (a) round about (b), and will lay siege against thee with a mount (c), and I will raise forts against thee (d). (Isaiah 29:3)
a. Camp against thee. NIV “encamp against you”
b. Round about. NIV “all around”
c. Lay siege against thee with a mount. NIV “encircle you with towers”
d. Raise forts against thee. NIV “set up my seige works against you”
Which implies a small area surrounded by forts, the evidences of which should remain.
WILL SPEAK FROM THE GROUND WHERE THEY WERE DESTROYED
And thou shalt be brought down, and shalt speak out of the ground (e), and thy speech shall be low out of the dust, and thy voice shall be, as of one that hath a familiar spirit, out of the ground (f), and thy speech shall whisper out of the dust. (Isaiah 29:4)
e. Shalt speak out of the ground. NIV “speak from the ground”
f. Out of the ground. NIV “from the earth”
From whence they were destroyed, their voice would come forth, not somewhere else – how preposterous.
Which prophecy was claimed by Nephi to apply to his people:
7 But behold, I proceed with mine own prophecy, according to my plainness; in the which I know that no man can err; nevertheless, in the days that the prophecies of Isaiah shall be fulfilled men shall know of a surety, at the times when they shall come to pass.
8 Wherefore, they are of worth unto the children of men, and he that supposeth that they are not, unto them will I speak particularly, and confine the words unto mine own people; for I know that they shall be of great worth unto them in the last days; for in that day shall they understand them; wherefore, for their good have I written them. (2 Nephi 25)
Nephi proceeded to recite Isaiah; the pertinent parts are identified:
14 But behold I prophesy unto you concerning the last days concerning the days when the Lord God shall bring these things forth unto the children of men
15 after that my seed and the seed of my brethren shall have dwindled in unbelief and shall have been smitten by the Gentiles yea after that the Lord God shall have camped against them (a) round about (b) and shall have laid siege against them with a mount (c) and raised forts against them (d) and after that they shall have been brought down low into the dust even that they are not yet the words of the righteous shall be written and the prayers of the faithful shall be heard and all they which have dwindled in unbelief shall not be forgotten
16 for they which shall be destroyed shall speak unto them out of the ground (e) and their speech shall be low out of the dust and their voice shall be as one that hath a familiar spirit for the Lord God will give unto him power that he may whisper concerning them even as it were out of the ground (f) and their speech shall whisper out of the dust
17 for thus saith the Lord God they shall write the things which shall be done among them and they shall be written and sealed up in a book and they that have dwindled in unbelief shall not have them for they seek to destroy the things of God
18 wherefore as they which have been destroyed have been destroyed speedily and the multitude of their terrible ones shall be as chaff that passeth away yea thus saith the Lord God it shall be at an instant suddenly. (2 Nephi 26)
Thus, Nephi saw the outcome of his people, and prophesied their words would come forth out of the ground. The relevance of the words of Isaiah to Book of Mormon history was confirmed by Mormon:
Search the prophecies of Isaiah behold I cannot write them yea behold I say unto you That those saints which have gone before me which have possessed this land shall cry yea even from the dust will they cry unto the Lord and as the Lord liveth he will remember the covenant which he hath made with them (Mormon 8:23)
The land they will “cry from” will be the land they were destroyed upon, where the Book of Mormon came forth on. That land should have archaeological evidence of ancient warfare as described in the Book of Mormon with remnant dirt palisade walls and deep ditches that number in the hundreds; and the land must be surrounded by bodies of water on all sides.
Only Western New York fulfills ALL three requirements, nowhere else does.